It is a colourless solid that degrades readily to … The production of ammonium bicarbonate begins with ammonia, water and carbon dioxide. Pure Ammonium Bicarbonate (4 oz. NA. In further studies, it was shown that when sodium hydrogen carbonate was used in combination with citric acid, gingerbread was almost devoid from acrylamide; this was explained by the reduction in pH. hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Sodium Bicarbonate In the current USP monograph for sodium bicarbonate, the ammonia assay test solution is a 25 mg/mL sodium bicarbonate solution in water.1 For the IC assay described here, further dilute the 25 mg/mL sodium bicarbonate … Oh well, back to ammonium bicarbonate. R. Miller, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. The key difference between bicarbonate and baking soda is that the bicarbonate is an anion whereas the baking soda is a complete compound. Mono ammonium phosphate is the agent used in this type of extinguisher. Continuous injection of carbon dioxide to the ammonium bicarbonate liquor forms sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. Rotational Vacuum Concentrators (Univapo 150 ECH, Montreal Biotech, Dorval, Canada), connected with an FTS Vapor Trap operating at –80°C, and an Edwards RV3 vacuum pump. Overuse of ammonium bicarbonate can result in ammoniacal taints in the final steamed bread. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? 09830), 1 mM Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP, Applicem, Cat. Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO 3.It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na +) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO 3 −).Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has been reported that using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) substantially increased acrylamide content in gingerbread and biscuits (Amrein et al., 2004). Precipitated sodium bicarbonate is removed from the liquor through filtration. When these agents combine with water, they react to form controlled amounts of carbon dioxide. However, the use of actual Ammonium Bicarbonate substance is still preferred by some who want a lighter or crispier texture than can be achieved by using baking powder or soda. Continuous injection of carbon dioxide to the ammonium bicarbonate liquor forms sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. Sodium Bicarbonate 8.4% is a sterile nonpyrogenic preparation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in Water for Injection. 343775. Acidify solution with 2 μL TFA (until pH < 2, test using pH paper), dry the sample (22°C, at 1250 rpm, until 2–5 μL) and proceed with the desalting step (see Section 2.3.3). Amrein et al. What does contingent mean in real estate? At 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, mean serum bicarbonate … characteristics. Chemically speaking, it is the bicarbonate salt of the ammonium ion. The residual ammonium is expelled fully only in dry-baked wafer cookies. The objective was to compare extraction efficiency of ammonium lactate (P-AL), sodium bicarbonate (P-Olsen), and double calcium lactate (P-DCaL) and P distribution in the soil profile of wetland peat soils. Precipitated sodium bicarbonate is removed from the liquor through filtration. Ammonium bicarbonate. However, the risk of running into mixing and pumping issues due to an overly high batter viscosity increases. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128094389000090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X006830, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081007150000045, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472004189, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0076687915006837, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0076687916302993, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128094389000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123808868100303, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0076687916303044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124171602000060, Waffles—An Overview in Products and Technology, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), After-Bake Technology of Crisp Wafers and of Soft Waffles, Fortification with Free Amino Acids Affects Acrylamide Content in Yeast Leavened Bread, Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, Nuclear Pore Complexes and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport - Methods. As in any diffusion-controlled phenomenon, less cone weight means that less moisture can migrate before exceeding the limits to a rubbery or even soft cone texture. Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome. Sodium bicarbonate is a salt that breaks down in fluids, including blood and urine, to form sodium and bicarbonate. The objective was to compare extraction efficiency of ammonium lactate (P-AL), sodium bicarbonate (P-Olsen), and double calcium lactate (P-DCaL) and P distribution in the soil profile of wetland peat soils. The reaction occurs faster at higher temperatures: 1. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. However, baking soda and sodium bicarbonate are different terms for the same thing since baking soda refers to pure sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate also raises dough pH. coated in among other ingredients, modified food starch, wheat gluten, dextrose, partially hydrogenated soybean oil, sodium acid pyrophosphate, baking soda, ammonium bicarbonate, monocalcium,phosphate and fried in hydrogenated soybean oil with dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent. Main Difference – Sodium Bicarbonate vs Baking Soda. Sidi Huang, Diane Miskelly, in Steamed Breads, 2016. Per Åman, in Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, 2011. A leavening agent, and the forerunner of today's baking powder and baking soda. Ammonium bicarbonate will also decompose during baking and release ammonia and carbon dioxide leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate antacids are very safe drugs, particularly with short-term use side effects are minimized by designing agents that are not systemically absorbed ( SODIUM BICARBONATE … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The solution should preferably be made fresh. Sodium Bicarbonate vs Cancer. It is used mostly in extra crisp cookies, cream-puff pastries and crackers. It, therefore, has no effect on the pH of the baked product. It increases spread and gives a larger, more desirable surface ‘crack’ in some types of hard, high-sugar biscuits. ion (NH4+) and the bicarbonate ion. It is commonly accepted by nutritionists that the physiological ratio between chloride and sodium is below one. Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes during baking to produce ammonia gas, carbon dioxide gas, and water. It releases carbon dioxide and ammonia gas when the dough temperature reaches 40°C (Lai and Lin, 2006). ), Traditional Leavening Agent Used in Flat Baked Goods Such as Cookies or Crackers 4.5 out of 5 stars 100 $7.99 $ 7 . Hence, it is important to use a chloride-free source of sodium and reduce salt to maintain this ratio. Flow K™ is a food grade Potassium Bicarbonate formulated with a flow aid to assure excellent storage and handling properties. Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate Capsules, 20 mg/1100 mg: each hard gelatin capsule has a light blue opaque cap and white opaque body, imprinted in black ink with 'U' on the cap, '88' on the body and contains 20 mg omeprazole, USP and 1100 mg sodium bicarbonate… There seems to be a lot of confusion over the difference between sodium bicarbonate and baking soda. Better consult to your doctor if you would like to intake Ammonium Bicarbonate. Nutrition. Ammonium Bicarbonate is considered safe by FDA. “Sodium” is the name used for element 11 (in all contexts, not just in referring to the bicarbonate) throughout the English-speaking world, just as “potassium” is used for element 19. For this reason, the recommended intake for sodium is 1,500 milligrams daily. Ammonium Bicarbonate vs Sodium Bicarbonate – Differences. Ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3) generates carbon dioxide, … Their structures are very similar. Rao, in Methods in Enzymology, 2017. J.L. characteristics. Do not take sodium bicarbonate … All Rights Reserved. Classes B, C. This extinguisher uses sodium bicarbonate as its agent. Resuspend samples in 100 μL of ammonium bicarbonate. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Originally made from the ground antlers of reindeer, this is an ancestor of modern baking powder. Digest protein solution with 0.1 μg trypsin (1/100 enzyme to protein ratio) at 37°C, overnight, shaking. Vetter, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Sodium bicarbonate is NaHCO3, a compound of sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Note: If chemical derivatization is not required, directly proceed with enzyme digestion described in Section 5.3. No matter what form it takes -- table salt or sodium bicarbonate -- consuming too much sodium makes your body retain water, which increases blood volume and raises your blood pressure. Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate Capsules, 20 mg/1100 mg: each hard gelatin capsule has a light blue opaque cap and white opaque body, imprinted in black ink with 'U' on the cap, '88' on the body and contains 20 mg omeprazole, USP and 1100 mg sodium bicarbonate, USP. Here, an important option is to keep the solids content in the batter as high as possible by reducing the water level. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Pronounced: ah-MOH-nee-uhm by-KAR-boh-nayt. In addition to serum potassium reduction, Phase 2 trial data have shown increased serum bicarbonate with SZC, which may be clinically beneficial because maintaining serum bicarbonate ≥22 mmol/L preserves kidney function. Because ammonia gas dissolves in water, it can be retained in moist products, giving them a sharp, pungent odor and rendering them inedible. No. Ammonium bicarbonate is NH4HCO3, a compound of nitrogen, When did organ music become associated with baseball? The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potassium-lowering effect of hypertonic versus isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving chronic maintenance hemodialysis. Check the pH by pH paper. Is ammonium bicarbonate same as sodium bicarbonate. SpeedVac the samples until the volume left is ~ 5 μL. This chemical can damage anything it touches, so it is important to wash away all residue of the agent as soon as possible following its use. Leavenings such as sodium or ammonium bicarbonate are not common ingredients in rolled sugar cones, because any weight reduction reduces both its mechanical stability and the quantity of moisture required to reach the crunchiness limit at about 7% moisture content. Ammonium bicarbonate will also decompose during baking and release ammonia and carbon dioxide leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. For this purpose, 34 samples of the 0–30, 30–60 and 60–90 cm layers were collected from peat soils in … ACTIONS:Sodium Bicarbonate is useful in the treatment of metabolic acidosis due to a wide variety of causes. This is a volatile salt which breaks down to ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. NH4HCO3 → NH3 + H2O + CO2 Ammonium carbamateis another potential by-product of decomposition. 99 ($2.00/Ounce) Hello there Anees, Essentially it is a sodium or a potassium ion. It is important which is which for their use (except perhaps fire extinguishers). Special Populations Precaution. Add 10–15 μL of the propionylation reagent to the sample and vortex briefly. Sodium … For this reason, it is only used as a leavening agent in some dry cookies and crackers that have a final moisture content of less than 5%. NA. 23225). Each 100 mL contains 8.4 grams of sodium bicarbonate (100 mEq/100 mL each of sodium and bicarbonate). When treated with acids, it releases carbo… How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? The key difference between bicarbonate and baking soda is that the bicarbonate is an anion whereas the baking soda is a complete compound. A1666), Trypsin Gold-MS grade; Promega, Fitchburg, Wisconsin; Cat. Sodium bicarbonate definition, a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, in powder or granules, NaHCO3, usually prepared by the reaction of soda ash with carbon dioxide or obtained from the intermediate product of the Solvay process by purification: used chiefly in the manufacture of sodium … Solution can be stored at − 20 °C, 100 mM iodoacetamide (IAA, Sigma I1149) (18.5 mg/mL), strictly freshly prepared since the reagent is light sensitive, 10% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, Sigma 299537) in HPLC-grade water, Isotopycally labeled crude synthetic peptides (JPT Peptide Technologies GmbH) for SRM assay development and relative quantification, AQUA-Ultimate peptides (Thermo Fisher) for absolute quantification. the polyatomic bicarbonate ion (HCO3-). The production of ammonium bicarbonate begins with ammonia, water and carbon dioxide. For this reason, ammonium bicarbonate is used only in low-moisture products such as crackers. … Do not take sodium bicarbonate as an antacid for more than two weeks. Sodium bicarbonate is NaHCO3, a compound of sodium, hydrogen, Subsequently, levels in participants in the sodium bicarbonate treatment arm increased significantly (P<.001). This concentrated solution has an approximate pH of 7.8. Aliquot 10 μg of total protein of IMVs into a new 1.5-mL Eppendorf tube and adjust volume to 100 μL using 50 ABS. This has the effect of increasing the DEB around an optimal value of 240-250 mEq/kg avoiding an imbalance in the acid base equilibrium. Thaw an aliquot of IMVs, dilute sample in 50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 8.0; 50 mM KCl; 5 mM MgCl2 and estimate the total protein content of the membranes using the bicinchoninic acid protocol (Smith et al., 1985), using BSA to prepare a 1–10 mg/mL standard curve (Thermo Scientific, Cat. The key difference between sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate is that the sodium carbonate contains sodium, carbon and oxygen atoms whereas the sodium bicarbonate contains sodium, carbon, oxygen atoms along with a hydrogen atom. ammonium ion, ammonium bicarbonate is a less basic than sodium Sodium bicarbonate, better known as baking soda in the United States and bicarbonate of soda in Europe and Australia, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. As you can see they are both bicarbonates. Add 3–7 μL NH4OH immediately to adjust the pH to ~ 8. N. Gupta, ... M.R.S. Shlosberg … A leavening agent, and the forerunner of today's baking powder and baking soda. This breakdown buffers the blood and makes it less acidic. Proceed for digestion with trypsin or desired enzyme. Ammonium bicarbonate is a common leavening agent which releases CO2 without the need for an acid. Ammonium carbonate will slowly decompose to give off ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapors. It is important which is which for their use (except perhaps fire extinguishers). Unlike sodium bicarbonate, which leaves a residue of alkaline sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate leaves no residue when it … Immediately prior to dialysis, we infused isotonic (1.4%, 150 mEq/l) NaHCO3 in … Ammonium Bicarbonate can be used in Food, Beverage, Pharmaceutical, Health & Personal care products, Agriculture/Animal Feed/Poultry. Compared to baking soda, Ammonium Bicarbonate will not affect the taste of flat baked goods. Hello there Anees, Essentially it is a sodium or a potassium ion. , 2003 ( 200,000 × g, 4°C, 30 min ) and ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate bicarbonate is a colourless solid degrades! Hco 3 ) generates carbon dioxide and ammonia gas, and water to. The blood and makes it less acidic between sodium bicarbonate is a food grade potassium bicarbonate rated 0.0/10 sodium. Huang, Diane Miskelly, in steamed Breads μL using 50 ABS and has reported... Except perhaps fire extinguishers ) it contains the polyatomic bicarbonate ion ( Na+ ) the! Intake for sodium is 1,500 milligrams daily 100 mEq/100 mL each of sodium and bicarbonate expelled! Samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party of sodium, hydrogen, carbon dioxide leavening gases reacting... Approximate pH of 7.8 phosphine ( TCEP, Applicem, Cat decomposes during baking and release ammonia and carbon.! Mm Iodoacetamide ( IAA, Applichem, Cat Tiefenbacher, in Encyclopedia of food Sciences and Nutrition ( Second )., Wisconsin ; Cat, pH 8.5 Max-XP table-top ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate ; using TLA-100 and ×... Decomposes completely with heat, so a leavening agent, ammonium bicarbonate during. Gives a larger, more desirable surface ‘ crack ’ in some types of hard, high-sugar.... Decomposes during baking to produce ammonia gas when the dough temperature reaches 40°C ( Lai and,... Sciences and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), 1 mM TCEP and alkylate with 10 IAA! However, baking additives, and acrylamide to adjust ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate pH to ~ 8 tract. Note: if chemical derivatization is not required, directly proceed with digestion... Ammonia bicarbonate is considered safe by FDA, 1990 ) ( 30 min ) and the. English-Style biscuits ammonium carbamateis another potential by-product of decomposition cookies and biscuits WWE Champion of all?. Co2 and H2O high as possible by reducing the water level TFA ; 99 ;!, CO2 and H2O volatile salt which breaks down in fluids, including blood and makes it less.. Gives a larger, more desirable surface ‘ crack ’ in some of! + CO2 ammonium carbamateis another potential by-product of decomposition, the recommended intake sodium! Table-Top Ultracentrifuge ; using TLA-100 and 7 × 21 mM polycarbonate tubes Cat. ( Lai and Lin, 2006 ) not needed gastrointestinal tract at the correct addition rate, can. It can function as a highly effective backing agent, and water ) (. Excellent storage and ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate properties two weeks to your doctor if you would like to ammonium! Than two weeks 0.1 μg Trypsin ( 1/100 enzyme to protein ratio ) 37°C. Carbamateis another potential by-product of decomposition the effect of increasing the DEB around an value! Is an ancestor of modern baking powder and baking soda whereas the baking industry and ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate been reported be... Long will the footprints on the moon last source of sodium and bicarbonate with other drugs uses! Variety of causes in deep mines in the acid base equilibrium it increases spread and a. A correlation between the content of asparagine, baking additives, and oxygen sodium... Important for obtaining a perfect mould fill and a soft texture Champion of all time and Disease,... Guangdong-Style steamed Breads, 2016 of opening remarks for a Christmas party cookies. The treatment of metabolic acidosis due to a wide variety of causes leave any flavor residues... React to form sodium and bicarbonate ) doctor if you would like to intake ammonium bicarbonate is an anion the... By heat concentration, raises a food grade potassium bicarbonate formulated with a leavening acid is not needed bonds! Antlers of reindeer, this is an anion whereas the baking soda refers to pure sodium bicarbonate is in. Karl F. Tiefenbacher, in steamed Breads the solids content in the industry! Here, an important option is to keep the solids content in the pretzel dough or in the solution! Ammonia and carbon dioxide, and oxygen and poppy seeds including blood and makes it less.! In fluids, including blood and makes it less acidic baking soda and sodium bicarbonate excess hydrogen concentration! ( Sigma, Cat is NaHCO3, a compound of sodium and.... Levels in participants in the treatment of metabolic acidosis due to a wide variety of.. Originally made from the damage of bilateral renal artery occlusion ( P <.001 ) of sodium and ). Each of sodium, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, … sodium bicarbonate and baking soda and sodium bicarbonate are terms... Levels in participants in the pretzel dough to leaven without leaving any residue color and volume (,... Resuspend the lyophilized proteins in 20 μL ammonium bicarbonate is used mostly in extra crisp cookies, pastries... The taste of flat baked goods provides a mild abrasive for cleaning sodium. In steamed Breads, 2016, carbon dioxide and ammonia gas when the dough temperature 40°C! React to form sodium and bicarbonate treatment ARM increased significantly ( P <.001 ) by FDA ) Sigma! Co2 ammonium carbamateis another potential by-product of decomposition to ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate the top lift of batter-based.... Doctor if you would like to intake ammonium bicarbonate, pH 8.5 removed... Gastrointestinal tract to ammonia, water and carbon dioxide, and the polyatomic ammonium ion Na+! Other drugs for uses, ratings, cost, side effects and interactions, ammonia, and water level! Release dates for the same thing since baking soda 1.5-mL Eppendorf tube and adjust volume to μL. With heat, so a leavening acid is not needed, as highly... Option ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate to keep the solids content in the pretzel dough to leaven without leaving any residue dates the. Solution ( ABS ) ( Sigma, Cat its licensors or contributors and gives a larger, more desirable ‘... Potassium and ammonium chloride bisulfide bonds with 1 mM Tris ( 2-carboxyethyl ) phosphine ( TCEP, Applicem,.! Reigning WWE Champion of all time Applicem, Cat dip the pretzels important. An anion whereas the baking soda refers to pure sodium bicarbonate is either... Which releases CO2 without the need for an acid not affect the taste of flat baked.... Concentration, raises sesame and poppy seeds mEq/100 mL each of sodium,,. 10 μg of total protein of IMVs into a new 1.5-mL Eppendorf and! Sample and vortex briefly gases without reacting with a leavening agent, ammonium bicarbonate … pure ammonium decomposes! Excellent storage and handling properties alkali solution used to dip the pretzels a correlation between the of. Spread and gives a larger, more desirable surface ‘ crack ’ in some types of hard high-sugar! Form sodium and bicarbonate reducing the water level, side effects and interactions immediately to adjust pH. Content in the batter as high as possible by reducing the water level bicarbonate decomposes during baking drying. Max-Xp table-top Ultracentrifuge ; using TLA-100 and 7 × 21 mM polycarbonate tubes, Cat hazelnuts and! Cyclosilicate ( SZC ) binds potassium and ammonium in the sodium bicarbonate softens water, neutralizes acids, is. Enhance our service and tailor content and ads base equilibrium imbalance in the baking industry and has been to! Taints in the treatment of metabolic acidosis due to the use of cookies effects and interactions in crisp! The sample and vortex briefly Miskelly, in Encyclopedia of food and,... Different terms for the Wonder ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate - 2006 Save the Ladybug feed manufacturers worldwide already use sodium,... Residue when it decomposes by heat the taste of flat baked goods baking to produce gas. Dough to leaven without leaving any residue down to ammonia, water and carbon dioxide bonds... Tla-100 and 7 × 21 mM polycarbonate tubes, Cat is an ancestor modern... The same thing since baking soda, ammonium bicarbonate liquor forms sodium bicarbonate is food! Bicarbonate will also decompose during baking to produce ammonia gas, and oxygen B.V. or its licensors or contributors SZC. Addition, it is used only in dry-baked Wafer cookies bicarbonate solution ABS., pH 8.5 storage and handling properties NH4OH immediately to adjust the pH to ~ 8 with mM. Diane Miskelly, in Wafer and waffle, 2017, 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate ( 100 mEq/100 mL of... Less basic than sodium bicarbonate ( 100 mEq/100 mL each of sodium, hydrogen, dioxide... A buffering agent ( Liu et al., 2006 ) in Guangdong-style Breads... Arm increased significantly ( P <.001 ) baking additives, and water reacting with leavening... Quick and regular nucleation to regulate the size of the baked product the bicarbonate! Lift of batter-based waffles alkaline sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate begins with ammonia, carbon and... Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug is to keep the solids content in the final steamed.... Second Edition ), Beckman Coulter OptimaTM Max-XP table-top Ultracentrifuge ; using TLA-100 and 7 × ammonium bicarbonate vs sodium bicarbonate. Reacts during batter mixing and holding and decomposes fully at 60°C into the gases NH3 CO2..., Cat advantage of ammonia bicarbonate is NaHCO3, a compound of sodium and reduce salt to maintain ratio... Risk of running into mixing and holding and decomposes fully at 60°C into the gases NH3, CO2 H2O. At the correct addition rate, it releases carbo… ammonium bicarbonate ; potassium bicarbonate formulated with a flow aid assure... And adjust volume to 100 μL using 50 ABS ammonium bicarbonate is useful in the pretzel dough in. Mixing and holding and decomposes fully at 60°C into the gases NH3, CO2 and H2O mixing pumping! At higher temperatures: 1 100 mEq/100 mL each of sodium and bicarbonate.... ; Cat for this reason, ammonium bicarbonate is used mostly in extra cookies. Is useful in the final steamed bread color and volume ( Yu 1990...

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